America in the 1950’s

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America in the 1950’s was similar in a way to the Roaring 20’s, in that it was generally a post-war time of overall good times throughout the states. The brief Korean war did take place early in the decade, but while the war has to this day never been officially declared over, the conflict had subsided substantially by 1953, thanks to the brand new President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term, Eisenhower authorized the interstate highway system, a multiple highway road system throughout the United States that connects many different states, in some cases the whole country, by one highway. This marked a major turning point in American transportation, as automobiles had become increasingly popular since the end of World War II.

Another important aspect of American culture in the 1950’s was the still-increasing popularity of motion pictures. Several films released throughout the decade became very successful, and also introduced some new production principles that would eventually become industry standard. These included the earliest uses of chroma-key, as well as other visual effects. Popular films of the era included Rear Window (1954),The Ten Commandments (1956), and Vertigo (1958). The Ten Commandments was, at the time, the most expensive film ever to be created, coming it at about $123,000,000 in today’s dollars, which is today only slightly higher than average, but was an unprecedented amount at the time.

As I previously mentioned, the interstate freeway system was approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956. This marked a revolutionary transition in transportation in America, and inter-state and even cross-country travel by automobile was now easier than ever. Cars took on a new style in the 1950’s, often bearing large fins along the back sides near the trunk. Chevrolet Corvettes were popular, as was the Ford Thunderbird. Import cars would not be a popular trend in America until the 1990’s, when Japanese imports would be wildly popular.

In 1959, the 49th and 50th of the United States were admitted into the union. These states were Alaska and Hawaii, neither of which were attached to the continental United States. Alaska is, by far, the largest of the United States, and is attached to northwestern Canada. Its westernmost island is just two miles from Russia’s easternmost island, but the two are separated by the international date line. Thus, if someone were to stand on the Little Dimoede island in Alaska, they might be able to see directly into the future if the visibility is clear. Hawaii is a state made of dozens of small islands located in the Pacific ocean, southwest of the continental United States.

The last major cultural development of the 1950’s in America I will mention here is the civil rights movement. During this decade, almost everything in the country was segregated–schools, transportation, and sports–to name a few. The civil rights movement officially began in 1954, in an effort to abolish racial discrimination against African-Americans and other racial groups. This came just under a century after the Emancipation Proclamation, which had accomplished a similar task–freeing black slaves.

Now, during the late 1950’s and into the mid-1960’s, the American civil rights movement sought to abolish the racial discrimination that had evidently not left the country in the 1860’s. It was back in 1949 that the first African-American to ever play in Major League Baseball made his debut. The result of the civil rights movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s was the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which was described as “an Act to prescribe penalties for certain acts of violence or intimidation, and for other purposes.”

In conclusion, the 1950’s were yet another time of cultural change and development, in many aspects, including cinema, transportation, and civil rights. After this period, another cultural downturn would strike, as with the 1960’s came an America counterculture, as well as the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, followed by war in Vietnam. Until next time, thank you for reading, and please be sure to provide any feedback or point out any errors you may have spotted in the comments.

Motion

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Newton’s Laws of Motion clearly define force and motion. The following equation defines force, and what is required to achieve it. (F = ma) In order to achieve force, you must have both mass and acceleration. Thus, if you have an elephant, but it is not moving or producing any kind of acceleration, its mass does not account for its lack of acceleration, and there is thus no force. If an elephant kicks a beach ball, however, there is both mass and acceleration, and thus, force.

What happens if a mouse kicks a beach ball? Will it have the same effect? Despite the mouse having a much smaller mass than the elephant in the previous example, Newton’s second law of motion does not discriminate the mass, or the acceleration, by its quantity. Thus, if a mouse were to kick a beach ball, it would indeed have the mass and acceleration necessary to cause force, and the ball would in turn travel, even if just a few millimeters. In conclusion, the second law of motion explains that motion and acceleration together create force.

Science 8 Week 41

World War II

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Just twenty years after the first World War, World War II ravaged the world and, like the first world war, failed to resolve the very conflicts which it had been the result of. The war was fought between almost the same countries as were involved in World War 1, although some new alliances were formed, and some old ones were broken up. The two sides at war during World War 2 were called the Allies and the Axis powers. The Allied Forces consisted of the United States, the United Kingdom, China, and the Soviet Union, along with some two dozen other countries. The primary nations of the Axis Forces were Germany, Italy, and Japan.

The war officially began in 1939. That year, Germany invaded Poland. Shortly thereafter, France, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa all declared war on Germany. The United States did not enter the war until late 1941, when Pearl Harbor, a harbor and naval base in Hawaii, was attacked by Japanese forces. It was December 7 of that year that the attack occurred. Shortly thereafter, Japan declared war on the States. Before word of this reached America, the Congress had declared war on Japan as well. Italy and Germany, the other two founding members of the Axis powers, declared war on the States on the 11th of that month.

The revolutionary invention of the atomic bomb was perhaps the most influential of the second World War, ultimately resulting in the end of the war in 1945 after the United States dropped two bombs in Japan, resulting in that country’s immediate surrender. The two atomic bombs were dropped on August 6th and 9th in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively. The result of these successive bombings was the loss of thousands of lives and the end of the war. The August, 1945 attacks on Japan marked a rather unexpected surrender, and there were plans for possibly dropping more bombs before the announcement was made on August 15. On September 2, 1945, an official treaty was signed.

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Does True Loyalty Require Unconditional Support?

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Loyalty is, in essence, unconditional support in and of it itself. Thus, can the lack of unconditional support of something cause you to be disloyal to that thing? I believe that the answer is clearly yes. How can loyalty be defined other than support? The caveat here is that in some circumstances, correction of something we believe to be wrong can be considered loyalty. Therefore, the real question lies in whether this reproach and correction is considered true loyalty, or if this is considered to be betrayal of the person, thing, or idea in question.

In order to find out the answer to the underlying question of this essay, we must take a look at the dictionary definition of the word “loyal”, the root word of “loyalty”. The act of being loyal is defined as follows: Giving or showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution. It is clear based on this definition that loyalty implies the support of the institution in question. That being said, is it not impossible that reproach can be supporting of a cause or other entity? I believe that the answer to this question is no. In my opinion, unconditional support clearly infers that there is no opposition to any aspect of the entity.

In conclusion, I believe that in order for someone to be truly loyal to a cause, institution, or other entity, they must show unconditional support for that thing, whereas helpful reproach and correction cannot be considered support, but rather simply a beneficent action that can perhaps help influence someone in a positive manner. I do not consider that to be support, which in turn means that this correctional behavior cannot be considered true loyalty. Thank you for reading. Please leave your comments and opinions on this topic below.

The 1960’s Counterculture

Following the post-war cultural and economic boom of the 1950’s came an era of moral decline and cultural upheaval in the 1960’s that we remember today as the counterculture. With this period came the immense popularization of drugs and rock’n’roll music. From the United Kingdom came several rock bands that became wildly popular during the counterculture of the 1960’s. These include The Beatles and The Rolling Stones. Also during this era came the assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States of America. These events and cultural developments will be discussed in greater detail in the following paragraphs.

We will begin with the revolution of the rock’n’roll music genre that I mentioned above. In the early 1960’s, The Rolling Stones and The Beatles came to America from Britain. This marked a pivotal turning point in the culture of America. During the previous decade, rock’n’roll had indeed been a dominant genre, with artists like Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry performing into the next decade. The 1960’s, however, brought on a new tone to rock’n’roll. The British Invasion of the 1960’s was the American debut of these wildly popular artists. It was February 9, 1964, that the Beatles appeared on the Ed Sullivan show with an audience of 73,000,000 Americans watching. This began the Beatles’ wild popularly that was known as “Beatlemania”.

Later in the decade, a massive three-day music festival called Woodstock took place, at which 500,000 people gathered to celebrate the decade’s themes of immorality and drugs. The festival took place in Bethel, New York, in August, 1969, and was a chaotic yet successful event. Part of the chaos was caused by the concert being free. Max Yasgur, a farmer, offered his 600-acre farm for use by the festival. He was later sued by neighbors for property damage caused by Woodstock. Days before the festival was to begin, 50,000 people were camping near the stage.

The event organizers found themselves in over $1,000,000 of debt following the event. A film of the event did become a hit and assisted in the paying off of the debt, but there still remained a substantial percentage of it. Another free music festival, the Altamont Music Festival at the Altamont Speedway in Tracy, CA, occurred that same year as a west-coast version of Woodstock. Its success was not matched, however; the chaotic event included the deaths of several individuals, including a stabbing during a Rolling Stones performance, and a biker gang serving as the event’s security.

In conclusion, the 1960’s were a time of chaotic cultural upheaval and moral decline, following a booming post-war decade in the 1950’s. By the end of the decade, the United States had seen the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and the nation was now at war with Vietnam. The counterculture is remembered today as an era where so-called hippies and rock’n’roll music dominated the generation. This decade seemed to mark a significant turning point in American culture as a whole, as we will see in future essays on later decades. Until then, thank you for reading, and be sure to comment with your feedback.

Three Fields Of Engineering

There are many different engineering fields we could discuss, but today I will only be describing three of them: civil engineering, mechanical engineering, and biomedical engineering. Each of these fields play critical roles in various aspects of innovation, infrastructure, and problem solving. We will begin with civil engineering. Civil engineering primarily consists of the planning and construction of infrastructural buildings and establishments. This is therefore one of the most important fields of engineering. Architects and engineers work together to make buildings and other structures safe and professional-looking. The architect handles the design aspect of a build whilst the civil engineer works to execute the architect’s plans.

Mechanical engineering is among the oldest fields of engineering, and combines mathematical and physics properties into one broad field. Being a very multifaceted industry, mechanical engineering can cover anything from constructing machines to the production of transportation modes. There are many different branches of mechanical engineering, all of which specialize in some aspect of mathematics and/or physics.

Lastly, biomedical engineering is the application of engineering to the human body, generally in a medicinal or otherwise beneficial manner. Biomedical engineering applies engineering principles to biology, and is thus a good career choice for anyone who has an interest in biology and mathematics.

In conclusion, there are many types of engineering fields, all of which serve important purposes in society and whose work can be seen in our everyday lives. We have discussed just three of these in today’s essay. Thank you for reading, and please leave your feedback below.

Science 8 Week 40

Literary Greats of the 20th Century

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, there were several noted literary greats’ who’s lives and works of literature are still remembered and read to this day. These include Edward Stratemeyer, C.S. Lewis, and J.R.R. Tolkien, all of which authored multiple books that sold millions of copies, and that are today remembered as some of the greatest literary works of all time. The following paragraphs will be discussing the lives and books of these authors.

Edward Stratemeyer was born in 1862 and was a famed author of the early 20th century. However, Stratemeyer himself was not nearly as well known as the many authors that were actually just pseudonyms for him and his syndicate, called the Stratemeyer Syndicate, which included Victor Appleton, Frank Dixon, and Laura Lee Hope, responsible for Tom Swift, The Hardy Boys, and The Bobbsey Twins, respectively. Each of these series, in addition to The Rover Boys, Nancy Drew, and others, were wildly successful, and many of them continued for many years after Stratemeyer’s death, such as The Bobbsey Twins, which were continually written almost annually until 1979.

Stratemeyer was born and raised in New Jersey, and wrote and sold his first stories in his late teen years. In 1899, the same year that Horatio Alger Jr., a popular author of the time and a personal favorite of Stratemeyer’s, he published the first book in The Rover Boys, a series of dime novels for children that were extremely popular and would be published until 1926. While many of his series were written by various people inside the Stratemeyer Syndicate, The Rover Boys series is believed to be entirely written by Stratemeyer, under the pen name of Arthur M. Winfield. Soon after, he released the first book of The Bobbsey Twins series, which, conversely, was the only book in the series Edward Stratemeyer was believed to have written. He died in 1930 in Newark, New Jersey at the age of 67.


Clive (C) Staples (S) Lewis was a renowned author and a famed Christian apologist. He was born in 1898 in Ireland. He graduated Oxford University in 1925, and he served in the British army during World War II. During this time, Lewis spoke several popular radio broadcasts on Christianity, which were later collected into the book Mere Christianity. During the following decade, Lewis began writing his famous children’s novel series The Chronicles of Narnia, the first book of which, The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe, released in 1950. Three of the seven Narnia books were later adapted into motion pictures.

Lewis later became a literature professor at Cambridge University. He died on November 22, 1963, at the age of 64, just a week prior to his 65th birthday. His works are remembered as some of the most influential and famous books in both the fiction and non-fiction genres in modern history.


The last author we will discuss is John (J) Ronald (R) Reuel (R) Tolkien. He was born in South Africa in 1892, and moved to England with his mom Mabel Tolkien at the age of three, following the death of his father, Arthur Tolkien. J.R.R. attended college at Exeter College before enlisting as a lieutenant and serving in the first world war. Following this service in the military, Tolkien obtained a job at the University of Leeds in England in 1920, being the youngest professor at the school. In 1925, he joined the staff of Oxford University, where he is said to have randomly conceived the idea of The Hobbit, which would eventually become an American bestseller.

J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit was published in 1937 after coming to the attention of a publishing firm in London. The book had been simply a children’s story he had written for his own children years prior to its being come across by an employee of the George Allen & Unwin publishing firm. It would be roughly fifteen years before the sequel to this bestselling novel was released, but when it did come, that sequel, published in a three book series, would come to be even more popular than The Hobbit. The Lord Of The Rings was published in 1954-55.

Both of these famous books were later reproduced in the form of motion pictures. The recent Hobbit film series in 3D has several unique features, including that it has a frame rate of 48ps, as opposed to the conventional 24 or 30 frame rate. Additionally, the films were shot in 5K resolution, instead of today’s popular 4K video.

J.R.R. Tolkien authored many other books during his 81 years before his death in Bournemouth, England on September 2, 1973. His works are still read and remembered today as some of the most popular and influential books of the 20th century in American and global literature. The same can be said of the other 20th century literary greats mentioned in today’s essay. Thank you for reading. Please feel free to leave and feedback or typos you have spotted in this article in the comments below.

My Summer Reading Plan

For this final assignment of the Ron Paul Curriculum personal finance course, I have chosen eight books on personal finance and/or economics to read over the summer. These are the books I have chosen, in no particular order:

  • Economics In One Lesson by Henry Hazlitt. An introduction to economics originally published in 1946. ($4.00)
  • Meltdown by Thomas Woods and Ron Paul. A book on the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. ($10.00)
  • More Than A Hobby by David Green. Not exactly on personal finance or economics, but on the story of America’s largest craft superstore, Hobby Lobby. ($10.00)
  • The Myth of the Robber Barons by Burton Folsom. Describes the role of key entrepreneurs in the economic growth of the United States from 1850 to 1910. ($6.00)
  • End The Fed by Ron Paul. A book advocating the abolition of the federal reserve. ($5.00)
  • Fiat Money Inflation in France by Andrew Dickson White. On fiat money inflation in France. ($6.00)
  • Trade-Offs by Harold Winter. An Introduction to Economic Reasoning and Social Issues

If you have any further reading suggestions for personal finance and/or economics that you would be willing to share, please let me know of them in the comments. Thank you for reading!

Personal Finance Week 35

Must Our Achievements Benefit Others In Order To Make Us Truly Happy?

Today I am answering the question of whether our achievements must benefit others in order to make us truly happy. The answer to this, like many of the previous questions I have dealt with here, can vary depending on the circumstance. It is a thought provoking question. When we strive to achieve something, what is our true motive? Are we trying to please and benefit just ourselves? Often, self-centered actions simply lead to pure emptiness. This pursuit of benefiting ourselves in this manner can be equated to a black hole. We will continually try to pursue self-benefiting achievements whilst we are simply entering a never-ending pit of emptiness. Will we ever feel a sense of completeness by living to achieve things for ourselves?

This is not to say that no achievement can ever benefit one’s self, hence the variable answer I mentioned above. However, does it not make you happy to know that your achievement has benefited other people? Some may be too selfish to realize or care. These people are stuck in that black hole, being sucked in like a vacuum cleaner to the never-ending pursuit of self-indulgence. When our achievements benefit others, we are making a difference for the better of humanity, and we are not simply trying to attain some other desire for ourselves. I thus believe that, while some may be somehow satisfied by achieving something for themselves, that perhaps true happiness can be brought most of all by knowing that we have achieved something for the better of other people and humanity.

Top Five Biggest Financial Mistakes of Young Married Couples

  1. Extravagant Weddings. Today, weddings are on average approximately $15,000. This cost could easily be cut down if certain measures of financial sense are taken in to account here. Perhaps even as little as $5,000 would be sufficient so as to save money and start off on the right foot financially.
  2. Over-the-top Honeymoons. Soon after their wedding, many newlyweds spend far too much money on the honeymoon. This could be cut down to a short, frugal vacation of some sort.
  3. Expensive Rings. Many times, engagement and wedding rings can cost several thousand dollars each. This is already in addition to the wedding expenses. These costs can also be cut down without negatively impacting the occasion.
  4. Quitting College. This is something that some newlyweds often do. This is not a smart choice, and may result in financial problems later in life. Even in the short term, a lot of the money that has already been invested in a college education is a waste if you do this.
  5. Getting Divorced. While not that many newlyweds do this, getting divorced is a big financial mistake. In the end, both parties are worse off financially in most cases. Thus, getting divorced is one of the biggest financial mistakes a newlywed, or anyone, can make.

These have been five of the biggest financial mistakes newlywed couples make. Thank you for reading, please leave your feedback in the comments below.

Personal Finance Week 34