C-A-B: A Brief Explanation

Science Lesson 58 Essay

C-A-B stands for compressions, airway, and breathing. These are the three steps in CPR that are very important. The C-A-B acronym was created by the American Heart Association as an easy way to remember the order of these steps. Today I will explain CPR in adults.

First, chest compressions are properly done by pushing down between 5 and 6 centimeters with the whole upper body weight. They are to be done at a rate of about 100-120 compressions per minute, or about two per second. The purpose of these compressions are to restore blood circulation.

The next step in CPR is opening the airway. In order to do this, you must have previously completed at least 30 chest compressions. Simply place the palm of your hand on the victim’s forehead and tilt their head back while gently lifting the chin with the other hand, thus opening the airway.

Lastly, breathing. Here, rescue breathing is necessary, meaning that the rescuer needs to give the victim air via mouth-to-mouth breathing, unless the jaw is seriously injured or the mouth cannot be opened for what-ever reason. After covering the victim’s mouth with yours, essentially making a seal, prepare to give to rescue breaths. If the victim does not rise upon the first one-second breath, repeat the airway step and try again.

This process is slightly different for young children and infants, and the above has explained only the methods for adult CPR.

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How To Perform the Swimming Rescue Action Steps

Colton Beckwith, RPC Science 8 Week 11

In the following essay I will be explaining the four of eight swimming rescue action steps we discussed in this week’s science lessons.

First, the assessment step is basically assessing the situation in order to figure out what type of rescue tactic is needed. Next, you must assess the conditions, including temperature, depth, current, and any potential obstacles you may encounter between your current location and the victim.

In the second step, equipment, you must find the necessary rescue aids or flotation devices you will need. Sometimes you need to get creative if you do not have the proper equipment.

Next is the entry step, which is, in short, entering the water. If the water is clear, the slope is gradual, and the shore is sandy, it is safe to enter the water via a beach entry, running into the water. Although this is the quickest entrance, it is important to ease into the water if the water is murky, the shore is rocky, or if the slope is steep. Murky water can spell disaster, as you cannot see when a deeper area or other danger will cause harm. This is called the ease-in entry. The next type of entry is leaping entry, in which you jump from a height of no greater than three feet into a body of water that is at least five feet deep. If you cannot tell the depth of the water because it is murky or otherwise hard to tell, the leaping entry is not recommended. The last type of entry is the feet-first entry. In this kind of entry, you jump into the water feet-first from a height greater than three feet. When doing this type of entry you perform compact jump with your knees slightly bent.

The fourth and final action step we discussed was the approach. During the approach, you should keep track of the victim as you approach, encouraging and instructing them. As conditions change, your strokes need to be adjusted as well.

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Important Sections of the Safety Code of American White Water

Colton Beckwith, RPC Science 8 Week 10

The Safety Code of American White Water is a document that contains important guidelines for recreation white water activities. The code is divided into six sections. The first, titled “Personal Preparedness and Responsibility,” discusses thirteen important points for general safety, including wearing a life jacket, not boating alone, and carrying equipment for unexpected emergencies. The second section, “Boat and Equipment Preparedness,” provides some good information on how to ensure the safety of your boat and related equipment, as well as some supplies to have on hand to be prepared for the unexpected. Section three deals with Group Preparedness and Responsibility, discussing ways to stay safe as a group when on the water. These including keeping the group compact, ensuring that that group equipment is suited properly for the conditions, and not using drugs or alcohol prior to a white water activity in order to remain ready and able for the circumstances that may be encountered. The fourth section of the Code talks about Guidelines for River Rescue, discussing how to stay safe and potentially help others when things go wrong in the water. Section five explains some universal river signals that may be used, also noting that other signals can be used when agreed upon by the group. Lastly, section six explains the international scale of river difficulty, which is in six classes, as follows:

Class I Rapids
Fast moving water with riffles and small waves. Few obstructions, all obvious and easily missed with little training. Risk to swimmers is slight; self-rescue is easy.

Class II Rapids: Novice
Straightforward rapids with wide, clear channels which are evident without scouting. Occasional maneuvering may be required, but rocks and medium-sized waves are easily missed by trained paddlers. Swimmers are seldom injured and group assistance, while helpful, is seldom needed. Rapids that are at the upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class II+”.

Class III Rapids: Intermediate
Rapids with moderate, irregular waves which may be difficult to avoid and which can swamp an open canoe. Complex maneuvers in fast current and good boat control in tight passages or around ledges are often required; large waves or strainers may be present but are easily avoided. Strong eddies and powerful current effects can be found, particularly on large-volume rivers. scouting is advisable for inexperienced parties. Injuries while swimming are rare; self-rescue is usually easy but group assistance may be required to avoid long swims. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class III-” or “Class III+” respectively.

Class IV Rapids: Advanced
Intense, powerful but predictable rapids requiring precise boat handling in turbulent water. Depending on the character of the river, it may feature large, unavoidable waves and holes or constricted passages demanding fast maneuvers under pressure. A fast, reliable eddy turn may be needed to initiate maneuvers, scout rapids, or rest. Rapids may require “must” moves above dangerous hazards. Scouting may be necessary the first time down. Risk of injury to swimmers is moderate to high, and water conditions may make self-rescue difficult. Group assistance for rescue is often essential but requires practiced skills. A strong eskimo roll is highly recommended. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated “Class IV-” or “Class IV+” respectively.

Class V Rapids: Expert
Extremely long, obstructed, or very violent rapids which expose a paddler to added risk. Drops may contain** large, unavoidable waves and holes or steep, congested chutes with complex, demanding routes. Rapids may continue for long distances between pools, demanding a high level of fitness. What eddies exist may be small, turbulent, or difficult to reach. At the high end of the scale, several of these factors may be combined. Scouting is recommended but may be difficult. Swims are dangerous, and rescue is often difficult even for experts. A very reliable eskimo roll, proper equipment, extensive experience, and practiced rescue skills are essential. Because of the large range of difficulty that exists beyond Class IV, Class 5 is an open-ended, multiple-level scale designated by class 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, etc… each of these levels is an order of magnitude more difficult than the last. Example: increasing difficulty from Class 5.0 to Class 5.1 is a similar order of magnitude as increasing from Class IV to Class 5.0.

Class VI: Extreme and Exploratory Rapids
These runs have almost never been attempted and often exemplify the extremes of difficulty, unpredictability and danger. The consequences of errors are very severe and rescue may be impossible. For teams of experts only, at favorable water levels, after close personal inspection and taking all precautions. After a Class VI rapids has been run many times, its rating may be changed to an appropriate Class 5.x rating.

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Swimming Defense: How To Stay Safe In The Water

Colton Beckwith, RPC Science 8 Life Saving Week 1

When swimming, there are important things to remember for the safety of you and others. These include the buddy system, which is where you always have another person near you at all times, so if something happens to one of you, the other person can step in and help. Other important points to remember include not to dive headfirst into a murky body of water, or any shallow body of water, as well as not to swim if there are no lifeguards around. This is important considering the fact that the risk of drowning is five times greater when there is no lifeguard present.

~Colton, RPC Applied Science Lesson 45

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